Andrew Nash(Dept of Political Studies, University of Cape Town)From the time Govan Mbeki joined the CPSA in 1938 to the time Thabo Mbeki studied at the LeninInstitute in 1969-70, Marxism was a central current and influence within left activism in South Africa, and the moral culture of Marxism was defined by certain characteristics that extended across borders of race and ideology. For this generation, Marxism provided a sense of alignment with the global power of the Soviet state; a belief that Marxist science informed their analyses and strategies in a way that resembled the role of the physical sciences in industry; a largely instrumental relationship to branches of knowledge outside Marxism; and an ethic of loyalty to the party line, self-sacrifice and self-denial for the sake of the greater cause, and a duty to be protect sensitive information from outsiders in a context of state repression.
The idea of 'three generations of the same family who have never worked' appeals to many, including politicians and policy-makers, to explain entrenched worklessness in the UK. Researchers in deprived neighbourhoods in Glasgow and Middlesbrough found that worklessness was not the result of a culture of worklessness, held in families and passed down the generations.
It found that:
- Even two generations of complete worklessness in the same family was very rare.
- There was no evidence of 'a culture of worklessness' – values, attitudes and behaviours discouraging employment and encouraging welfare dependency – in the families taking part in the research.
- Working-age offspring remained strongly committed to conventional values about work and were keen to avoid the poverty and worklessness experienced by their parents.
Many different "takes" on my notion of Three Generations to turn a culture inside out while REMAINING, by necessity to do so....covertly. A fish can never be told its wet
This division of human rights into three generations was introduced in 1979 by Czech jurist Karel Vasak. The three categories align with the three tenets of the French Revolution: liberty, equality, and fraternity.
First-generation, “civil-political” rights deal with liberty and participation in political life. They are strongly individualistic and negatively constructed to protect the individual from the state. These rights draw from those articulates in the United States Bill of Rights and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in the 18th century. Civil-political rights have been legitimated and given status in international law by Articles 3 to 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.http://www.globalization101.org/three-generations-of-rights/
This is written from the perspective of Australian Society...but it seems in line with the points I wish to make..
It has become conventional wisdom that the essential characteristic of contemporary Australian society is its diversity. In the world of marketing, people are starting to talk about ‘particles’ (rather than the more traditional ‘segments’) of the market. Most of the traditional generalisations about Australian society can be made with less confidence than before, and many of them can no longer be made at all.
We have been living through a period of turbulent and relentless social change, and this has been re-defining the character of our society. The roles and responsibilities of men and women are being radically reassessed. Patterns of marriage and divorce have been through revolutionary upheaval. As a result, patterns of family formation and dislocation have been irrevocably changed: the one-parent family is now ‘mainstream’ and 25 per cent of babies are born out of wedlock.
Patterns of work and leisure have been destabilised by high unemployment, the rise of part-time work and the increasing casualisation of the workforce. Electronic technology (especially information technology) has revolutionised the workplace, the retail environment and, increasingly, the home. Money is becoming invisible and the credit revolution has wrought a culture shift in our attitudes to saving and spending.
The Experience of Immigrants andFirst Generation Americans from Non-Western CountriesAmerica is a country founded by immigrants, those hoping to live a better life in a new land. Individuals living in theUnited States today represent every country around the world, from hundreds of different cultural backgrounds. Culture has an overwhelming impact on the daily lives of all Americans. Culture determines what birth name you receive, how your family interacts, which food is edible, what you are taught to believe in, how you are taught to dress, and the life opportunities that ]ay ahead. It is irrefutable that gender roles and traditions are defined by cultural norms. Culture is the foundation for expectations and values an individual holds dear. For immigrants and first generation Americans alike, when their cultural foundation is no longer present, expectations and values can change or be eliminated entirely.